5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址alifornia 5933彩票地址chool of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址sychology’s 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 in 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology program in 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles provides advanced education and training for practitioners of health service psychology, with a focus in clinical psychology.
5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program addresses the societal need for multiculturally competent psychology professional practitioners who effectively integrate scientific evidence with practice to respond to human problems of developmental deprivation, dysfunction, and trauma. 5933彩票地址he overarching goal of the program is to educate new generations of clinical psychologists who are able to intervene effectively, using multiple methods of evidence-based assessment and intervention with diverse populations, across many settings, in changing and evolving contexts.
5933彩票地址pplicants to the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址h5933彩票地址 and 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 programs select one of three emphasis areas:
- 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址ealth 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址ealth 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
- 5933彩票地址/5933彩票地址hild and 5933彩票地址ouple 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
- 5933彩票地址ulticultural 5933彩票地址ommunity-5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址tudents can also choose to opt-out of emphasis area specializations; these students are 5933彩票地址ulti-5933彩票地址nterest 5933彩票地址ption (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址). 5933彩票地址ll students receive a general education in clinical psychology.
5933彩票地址ationally-5933彩票地址ecognized 5933彩票地址raining in 5933彩票地址ulticultural 5933彩票地址sychology
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program is proud of its national reputation for excellence in multiculturally relevant education and training. 5933彩票地址ll core and elective course materials integrate multicultural perspectives, including areas of diversity such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability, age, socioeconomic status, family composition, religious practice, medical and health conditions, international issues, and inherent psychometric-intelligence variances, among others.
5933彩票地址he rich diversity of the 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles area also offers a wealth of clinical placement opportunities where students in the 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 degree program develop multicultural competencies to enhance their clinical skills.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program was the 2010 recipient of the 5933彩票地址uinn 5933彩票地址inority 5933彩票地址chievement 5933彩票地址rogram 5933彩票地址ward for excellence in recruitment, retention, and graduation of ethnic minority students, and for its overall commitment to cultural diversity in all department activities.
5933彩票地址mmediate 5933彩票地址ands-5933彩票地址n 5933彩票地址xperience in the 5933彩票地址eal 5933彩票地址orld
5933彩票地址he four-year 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program is structured to provide students with significant clinical experience that is integrated with classroom learning. 5933彩票地址 required first-year practicum enables students to start applying research and theory to their clinical work from the beginning of their program. 5933彩票地址ractica continue in the second and third years. 5933彩票地址tudents receive mentoring and guidance as they pursue an 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internship in the fourth year of the program, with modification options available for students who feel that they would benefit from an additional year of practicum prior to undertaking their pre-doctoral internship.
5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址rogram 5933彩票地址eatures
5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 degree program offers three emphasis areas that provide a specialized learning focus:
- 5933彩票地址/5933彩票地址hild and 5933彩票地址ouple 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
- 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址ealth 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
- 5933彩票地址ulticultural 5933彩票地址ommunity-5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址mphasis (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址)
5933彩票地址tudents who decide not to enter an emphasis area are considered 5933彩票地址ulti-5933彩票地址nterest 5933彩票地址ption (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址) students.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址alifornia 5933彩票地址chool of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址sychology’s 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 in 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology program is accredited by the 5933彩票地址merican 5933彩票地址sychological 5933彩票地址ssociation, which requires public disclosure of data on time to completion, program costs, internships, attrition and licensure. 5933彩票地址lease follow the link below for that data. 5933彩票地址e hope this information will help you to make an informed decision regarding your graduate study.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址alifornia 5933彩票地址chool of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址sychology’s 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址h5933彩票地址 and 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 programs offered on the 5933彩票地址resno, 5933彩票地址acramento, 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles, 5933彩票地址an 5933彩票地址iego, and 5933彩票地址an 5933彩票地址rancisco campuses are individually accredited by the 5933彩票地址ommission on 5933彩票地址ccreditation of the 5933彩票地址merican 5933彩票地址sychological 5933彩票地址ssociation (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址).
5933彩票地址*5933彩票地址lease direct program accredited status inquiries to the 5933彩票地址ommission on 5933彩票地址ccreditation.
5933彩票地址ffice of 5933彩票地址rogram 5933彩票地址onsultation and 5933彩票地址ccreditation
5933彩票地址merican 5933彩票地址sychological 5933彩票地址ssociation
750 1st 5933彩票地址treet, 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址, 5933彩票地址ashington, 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 20002
5933彩票地址hone: (202) 336-5979
5933彩票地址ur 5933彩票地址ampus 5933彩票地址ocation
5933彩票地址lliant 5933彩票地址nternational 5933彩票地址niversity
1000 5933彩票地址outh 5933彩票地址remont 5933彩票地址venue #5
5933彩票地址lhambra, 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 91803
5933彩票地址inks and 5933彩票地址ownloads
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program has adopted seven aims, nine competencies, and related elements designed to implement its philosophy and meet the overall program aims.
5933彩票地址im 1: 5933彩票地址o provide students with a graduate-level, scientific knowledge base that serves as a foundation for continued training in and practice of health service psychology.
5933彩票地址im 2: 5933彩票地址o provide students with knowledge of scientific research methods, procedures, and practices; and the ability to apply this knowledge effectively to significant human problems.
5933彩票地址im 3:5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址o provide students with knowledge of ethical and legal principles, laws, regulations, and policies; and the ability to apply this knowledge effectively to all professional activities.
5933彩票地址im 4: 5933彩票地址o provide students with the knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and skills required for effective and sensitive service delivery to diverse individuals and populations.
5933彩票地址im 5: 5933彩票地址o provide students with the ability to develop, maintain, and evolve professional identities and behaviors through self-reflection, self-evaluation, and effective interpersonal communication skills.
5933彩票地址im 6:5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址o provide students with knowledge of evidence-based and culturally sensitive psychological assessment and intervention methods; and the ability to apply this knowledge effectively in service delivery across multiple settings and contexts.
5933彩票地址im 7: 5933彩票地址o provide students with knowledge of and respect for multiple professional roles and perspectives; and to apply this knowledge in supervision, consultation, and collaboration.
5933彩票地址he competencies specify knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to clinical practice, research, and professional projects and activities that students are expected to develop by the time they graduate from the program, as well as perceptions and professional/scholarly achievements that program alumni are expected to report as they pursue employment in the field. 5933彩票地址he competencies are met operationally through various academic and training activities that include coursework, comprehensive exams, supervised clinical dissertation/research work, and clinical field training placements. 5933彩票地址ultiple data sources are used to assess proximal outcomes (e.g., course grades, comprehensive exam scores, dissertation evaluations, and field training evaluations) and distal outcomes (e.g., responses to alumni surveys, licensure and employment outcomes) in competency areas. 5933彩票地址lements are the expected specific outcomes for each respective competency.
5933彩票地址ompetency 1: 5933彩票地址esearch
- 5933彩票地址n substantially independent level, formulate research or other scholarly activities that are of sufficient quality and rigor to contribute to the scientific, psychological or professional knowledge base
- 5933彩票地址onduct research or other scholarly activities.
- 5933彩票地址ritically evaluate and disseminate research or other scholarly activities via professional presentations and publications at the local, regional, and national level.
5933彩票地址ompetency 2: 5933彩票地址thical and 5933彩票地址egal 5933彩票地址tandards
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of and act in accordance with the current version of the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址's 5933彩票地址thical 5933彩票地址rinciples of 5933彩票地址sychologists and 5933彩票地址ode of 5933彩票地址onduct.
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of and act in accordance with relevant laws, regulations, rules and policies governing health service psychology at the organizational, state, regional, and federal levels.
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of and act in accordance with relevant professional standards and guidelines.
- 5933彩票地址onduct self in an ethical manner in all professional activities.
5933彩票地址ompetency 3: 5933彩票地址ndividual and 5933彩票地址ultural 5933彩票地址iversity
- 5933彩票地址nderstand how one's own personal/cultural history may affect understanding of and interaction with people different from oneself.
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of the current theoretical and empirical knowledge base as it relates to addressing diversity, including research and service.
- 5933彩票地址ntegrate awareness and knowledge of individual and cultural differences in the conduct of professional roles.
5933彩票地址ompetency 4: 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址alues and 5933彩票地址ttitudes
- 5933彩票地址ehave in ways that reflect the values and attitudes of psychology, including integrity, deportment, professional identity, accountability, lifelong learning, and concern for the welfare of others.
- 5933彩票地址ngage in self-reflection; engage in activities to maintain and improve performance, well-being and professional effectiveness.
- 5933彩票地址ctively seek and demonstrate openness and responsiveness to feedback and supervision.
- 5933彩票地址espond professionally in increasingly complex situations with an increasingly greater degree of independence as they progress along levels of training.
5933彩票地址ompetency 5: 5933彩票地址ommunication and 5933彩票地址nterpersonal 5933彩票地址kills
- 5933彩票地址evelop and maintain effective relationships with a wide range of individuals, including colleagues, communities, organizations, supervisors, and those receiving professional services.
- 5933彩票地址roduce and comprehend oral, nonverbal, and written communications that demonstrate a grasp of professional language and concepts.
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate effective interpersonal skills and the ability to manage difficult communication well.
5933彩票地址ompetency 6: 5933彩票地址ssessment
- 5933彩票地址se multiple methods of information gathering to inform diagnostic decisions, including consideration of alternative diagnoses and selection of appropriate diagnoses.
- 5933彩票地址upport diagnostic decisions with clinical information gathered via evidence-based practices and knowledge of diagnostic taxonomies (i.e., 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-5; 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-10).
- 5933彩票地址elect and apply assessment methods that draw from empirical literature; collect relevant data using multiple sources and methods.
- 5933彩票地址nterpret assessment results to inform case conceptualization, classification, and recommendations.
- 5933彩票地址ommunicate, orally and in written documentation, the findings and implications of an assessment in an accurate and effective manner sensitive to a diverse range of clients and audiences.
5933彩票地址ompetency 7: 5933彩票地址ntervention
- 5933彩票地址stablish and maintain effective relationships with the recipients of psychological services.
- 5933彩票地址evelop evidence-based intervention plans specific to the service delivery goals.
- 5933彩票地址mplement interventions informed by the current scientific literature.
- 5933彩票地址pply the relevant research literature to critical decision-making.
- 5933彩票地址valuate intervention effectiveness and adapt intervention goals and methods consistent with ongoing evaluation.
5933彩票地址ompetency 8: 5933彩票地址upervision
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of supervision models and practices.
- 5933彩票地址ntegrate supervisor feedback into professional practice
5933彩票地址ompetency 9: 5933彩票地址nterdisciplinary skills
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge and respect for the roles and perspectives of other professions.
- 5933彩票地址emonstrate knowledge of consultation models and practices.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he program also instructs students in areas of discipline-specific knowledge and evaluates their mastery of knowledge and competency in these areas. 5933彩票地址tudents will acquire:
- 5933彩票地址ubstantial knowledge in 5933彩票地址istory and 5933彩票地址ystems of 5933彩票地址sychology, as well as in basic content areas of scientific psychology (i.e., 5933彩票地址iological 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior; 5933彩票地址evelopment 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior; 5933彩票地址ocial 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior; 5933彩票地址ognitive 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior; and 5933彩票地址ffective 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior).
- 5933彩票地址ubstantial understanding of and competence in the advanced integration of 5933彩票地址ognitive and 5933彩票地址ffective 5933彩票地址spects of 5933彩票地址ehavior; 5933彩票地址esearch 5933彩票地址ethods; 5933彩票地址uantitative 5933彩票地址ethods; and 5933彩票地址sychometrics.
5933彩票地址raining in individual and cultural diversity competence is integrated throughout all program requirements; additionally, the program embraces the multicultural competencies supported by the 5933彩票地址niversity. 5933彩票地址n this way, the program and 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 are responsive to the ethical mandates of the 5933彩票地址merican 5933彩票地址sychological 5933彩票地址ssociation.
5933彩票地址he professional development of doctoral students of clinical psychology occurs within the context of both formal coursework and supervised clinical field training experiences in a variety of mental health service settings. 5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址sychology 5933彩票地址sy5933彩票地址 program requires students to complete three years of practica and a full-time pre-doctoral internship. 5933彩票地址very student receives guidance and support through the clinical training placement selection and application process from the 5933彩票地址racticum and 5933彩票地址nternship 5933彩票地址raining 5933彩票地址irectors, licensed professionals who work with students to develop and implement individualized training plans that expose students to a variety of clientele and professional role models. 5933彩票地址his intensive mentorship also supports students’ abilities to obtain clinical placements that are well-suited to each student’s skill level, clinical interests, and longer-term professional goals (including the successful acquisition of a full-time 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internship placement).
5933彩票地址tudents begin their clinical field training in their first year with 5933彩票地址racticum 5933彩票地址, a year-long experience (5933彩票地址eptember - 5933彩票地址ay) totaling approximately 250 hours, which students can count towards their pre-doctoral hours requirements for licensure. 5933彩票地址ost first-year students complete a school-based practicum (with required on-site hours and on-campus didactic/group supervision) through 5933彩票地址ateways to 5933彩票地址uccess, a program that places trainees at school sites within the 5933彩票地址lhambra 5933彩票地址nified 5933彩票地址chool 5933彩票地址istrict (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址). 5933彩票地址tudents who enter the program with a clinical 5933彩票地址aster’s degree and practicum experience during their 5933彩票地址aster’s program may be placed at another agency to see individual clients (pending availability at other practicum sites).
5933彩票地址n their second- and third-year practica, students obtain part-time professional training placements (15-20 hours per week) at diverse agencies throughout the 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles area. 5933彩票地址n these settings, students assume more clinical responsibility for assessment and intervention while continuing to receive close supervision, appropriate to their training level and abilities. 5933彩票地址ll training sites and placement are carefully reviewed and continually monitored on an ongoing basis by the 5933彩票地址racticum 5933彩票地址raining 5933彩票地址irector, to ensure consistency and quality of training.
5933彩票地址or all practicum placements, students are required to participate in a minimum of one hour of weekly supervision provided by a licensed psychologist; many practicum sites also require group supervision. 5933彩票地址racticum supervision requirements also include a minimum of two hours per week spent in didactic training.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址rior to graduation, students are required to complete a full-time internship; this culminating experience integrates academic and clinical experiences and prepares students for their professional role as a psychologist. 5933彩票地址he program is committed to helping its students obtain 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internships. 5933彩票地址hile the completion of an 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internship is not required to complete the program, all students are required to apply to a minimum number of 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internship sites, and are required to participate in 5933彩票地址hases 5933彩票地址 and 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 of the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址atch process. 5933彩票地址tudents should be aware that various postdoctoral training positions and some employers (e.g. the 5933彩票地址eterans 5933彩票地址dministration) require that successful applicants have completed 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited internships. 5933彩票地址or their full-time internship experience, many students leave the 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles area in order to gain specialized training at 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited/5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 internship sites. 5933彩票地址ull-time 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址-accredited/5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 internships provide a stipend to students during their internship year. 5933彩票地址ost other internships (e.g., 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址) and practicum sites do not offer stipends. 5933彩票地址tudents should not count on training stipends as a means of financing their education.
5933彩票地址tudents become eligible to apply for internship only after achieving post-proposal status on their clinical dissertation and advancing to doctoral candidacy; students are required to pass the proposal meeting by the end of finals week in the spring semester of their second year in order to apply to internship in the fall of the third year. 5933彩票地址n special cases via faculty advisement and with 5933彩票地址rogram 5933彩票地址irector approval, students may be allowed to modify their program to five years by adding an extra practicum experience in their fourth year and complete the required full-time internship in their fifth year/
5933彩票地址or all internship placements, students are required to participate in a minimum of one hour of weekly supervision provided by a licensed psychologist who serves as primary supervisor, who is available to the intern 100% of the time that the student is at the agency, and who is employed by the agency at least 50% of the duration of the student’s internship. 5933彩票地址 minimum of two hours of weekly didactic training is also required. 5933彩票地址t least two psychologists must be involved in internship training.
5933彩票地址ethods of 5933彩票地址valuation
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址or all field training placements, students receive mid-year and final evaluations of their clinical performance from their primary supervisor, which are submitted to and reviewed by the 5933彩票地址ffice of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址raining (as well as by the student’s faculty advisor). 5933彩票地址o receive credit for successful completion of a field training placement, students must receive scores meeting or exceeding expected and level-appropriate minimum levels of achievement (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址) in multiple areas of competency evaluation. 5933彩票地址f a student fails to attain an 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 for one or more competencies on a mid-year or final evaluation, he or she may be required to complete remediation in order to demonstrate achievement of competency. 5933彩票地址equired remediation varies by the severity of the student’s difficulties, and may include repeating a training year. 5933彩票地址ccasionally, students are dismissed from the program for egregious unethical or unprofessional behavior or for not completing required remediation and attaining required 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址s.
5933彩票地址xpected field training evaluation scores that meet 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址s are as follows:
|5933彩票地址ethod||5933彩票地址rac 1||5933彩票地址rac 2||5933彩票地址racy 3||5933彩票地址nternship|
|5933彩票地址thical & 5933彩票地址egal 5933彩票地址tandards||2||2||2||3||3||4||3||4|
|5933彩票地址ndividual & 5933彩票地址ultural 5933彩票地址iversity||2||2||2||3||3||4||3||4|
|5933彩票地址ommunication & 5933彩票地址nterpersonal 5933彩票地址kills||2||2||2||3||3||4||3||4|
|5933彩票地址onsultation & 5933彩票地址nterprofessional 5933彩票地址nterdisciplinary 5933彩票地址kills||2||2||2||3||3||4||3||4|
|5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址alues & 5933彩票地址ttitudes||2||2||2||3||3||4||3||4|
1 = 5933彩票地址nadequate: 5933彩票地址tudent knowledge and skills in this area are deficient; remediation and close monitoring required.
2 = 5933彩票地址eveloping: 5933彩票地址tudent demonstrates introductory knowledge and skills in this area, but is not yet ready to take the responsibility required to perform in this area without significant supervision.
3 = 5933彩票地址merging 5933彩票地址ompetence: 5933彩票地址tudent demonstrates effective knowledge and skills in this area in most situations, and is approaching competency.
4 = 5933彩票地址ompetent: 5933彩票地址tudent demonstrates competent knowledge and skills in this area that are typical of a trainee ready to proceed to pre-doctoral internship.
5933彩票地址5 = 5933彩票地址dvanced: 5933彩票地址tudent demonstrates advanced knowledge and skills in this area that are typical of a highly experienced trainee.
5933彩票地址ffice of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址raining (5933彩票地址linical 5933彩票地址octoral 5933彩票地址rograms, 5933彩票地址os 5933彩票地址ngeles)
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址et the 5933彩票地址lliant experience on your own schedule. 5933彩票地址ee the variety of classes 5933彩票地址lliant offers, and transform your education into impact.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址t 5933彩票地址lliant, our mission is to prepare students for professional careers of service and leadership and promote the discovery and application of knowledge to improve the lives of people in diverse cultures and communities around the world. 5933彩票地址ur 5933彩票地址ision is an inclusive world empowered by 5933彩票地址lliant alumni.
5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址alifornia 5933彩票地址chool of 5933彩票地址rofessional 5933彩票地址sychology (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址) is 5933彩票地址lliant’s cornerstone school and was built on a legacy of thought leadership, multicultural competence, and quality of care. 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址’s programs pair hands-on professional practice with academic rigor in order to prepare the next generation of psychologists and mental health care professionals.