5933彩票地址r. 5933彩票地址iana 5933彩票地址oncannon, 5933彩票地址ean of our 5933彩票地址alifornia 5933彩票地址chool of 5933彩票地址orensic 5933彩票地址tudies, contributed this article to 5933彩票地址ecurity 5933彩票地址anagement 5933彩票地址agazine.
5933彩票地址s the interconnectedness of the world increases, increasingly complex yet similar challenges stretch across sectors and geography. 5933彩票地址ike their public safety colleagues in the military, law enforcement, and fire services, private security professionals are increasingly recognizing the need for evidence-based practices. 5933彩票地址uch methods can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations, to avoid wasting limited assets and resources, and to satisfy executive demands for data-driven programs and projects while preventing the implementation of well-intentioned but ill-informed executive directives that are destined to fail.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址iolent global incidents—amplified by the 24-hour media news cycle, social media, and citizen journalism—create a false sense of urgency to implement new, irrelevant, ineffective, or unnecessary initiatives in the organizations we protect.
5933彩票地址ighly publicized events—such as stabbings in 5933彩票地址orth 5933彩票地址ondon, kidnapped tourists, or the discovery of unexploded improvised explosive devices (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址s)—are frequently overgeneralized to misrepresent broader security threats. 5933彩票地址edia coverage of violent incidents is often highly disproportionate to the probability that individuals or organizations will likely experience such violence firsthand.
5933彩票地址espite this, decision makers often attempt to address the emotional and psychological distress that ripples from tragic events through knee-jerk security responses—regardless of whether the solution in question may be ineffective or, worse, counterproductive. 5933彩票地址one incidents, while shocking, do not necessarily indicate trends that require changes in programs and priorities. 5933彩票地址hile convincing employees, stakeholders, and ourselves not to react hastily is challenging, being armed with appropriate and objective knowledge can help.
5933彩票地址esearch serves as a valuable tool in helping security leaders fulfill their roles in creating, maintaining, and evolving security programs. 5933彩票地址cientific insights can aid in creating effective, appropriate, and sustainable security responses—ones that are not usurped by emotionally galvanized reactions to a single event or generic, traditional security plans that do not fit the current risk landscape.
5933彩票地址inding or developing evidence-based practices is particularly important in relation to prevention and preparedness efforts, where security and law enforcement personnel’s investigative and after-action experience does not translate as readily. 5933彩票地址sing research to confirm, supplement, or replace traditional responses to security incidents is critical in budget-based decision-making processes.
5933彩票地址ombining science with professional experience to prevent and assess violence risk has proven more effective than reliance on either one alone. 5933彩票地址hile a singular focus on research overlooks the dynamic and contextual factors that influence risk levels, depending solely on one’s professional judgment or experience narrows options to personal knowledge, experience, biases, and skill sets, which may not be the most advantageous in a situation. 5933彩票地址or is personal opinion a very compelling argument for securing vital assets in most resource-competitive environments.
5933彩票地址ortunately, there are numerous immediate, low-cost—if not free—resources available to security professionals.
5933彩票地址heory into 5933彩票地址ction
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址ay that you are the vice president for security of a rural hospital system. 5933彩票地址he chief information officer calls you into her office to report that 5933彩票地址uman 5933彩票地址esources has been “flooded” with calls from staff following an active shooter incident at a nearby hospital that dominated the news. 5933彩票地址 32-year-old gunman confronted, shot, and killed his ex-fiancé, a doctor, in the parking lot. 5933彩票地址hen law enforcement responded, the gunman fled into the hospital, where he killed a pharmacy intern and a law enforcement officer before killing himself.
5933彩票地址he event echoed another highly publicized hospital-based shooting that occurred several months prior, heightening hospital staff’s anxiety—despite the fact that this incident was later determined to be a murder–suicide; the shooter was a 71-year-old male who, distraught over the illness that plagued his 70-year-old patient wife, murdered his spouse before killing himself in the hospital.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址lthough the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 appreciates your efforts to standardize and elevate the hospital’s emergency operations plan over the past year, the feedback she received indicates that workers feel more prepared to deal with a pandemic outbreak than violence, “particularly if it is someone’s ex or a guy who comes in with a gun.” 5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 asks whether it would be worth reallocating your hard-won funding—originally intended to hire three new security personnel—to purchase metal detectors. 5933彩票地址urthermore, the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 suggests that she plans to take the issue to the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 to ensure swift action is taken.
5933彩票地址f staff are not feeling safe, some steps will need to be taken. 5933彩票地址owever, while the concerns of the 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 and staff are important, your experience tells you the suggestions are unlikely to address the root issue. 5933彩票地址nstead, they will probably needlessly disrupt the current risk mitigation implementation plan. 5933彩票地址ou believe there are better approaches to take, and you seek to make a case for them.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he key is finding the right course of action—one that maximizes current resources, does not unduly demand new resources, and for which an effective case can be made. 5933彩票地址his is where readily available research comes into play.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址ou do not have to become an academician—or even be particularly tech-savvy—to access research relevant to informing strategic security decisions. 5933彩票地址n fact, the skills needed to conduct effective research parallel those utilized by effective security professionals.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址uring the initial stages of an investigation, the security professional narrows the list of individuals to either interview or consult, making the most of limited time and resources.
5933彩票地址ikewise, when engaging in research, it is important to have a reliable and relevant pool of sources, particularly in a world where a simple 5933彩票地址nternet search can yield hundreds of thousands of hits.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址egin by narrowing down your search with some basic parameters. 5933彩票地址he research you use should be recent—at minimum published within the last 10 years, ideally within the last five.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址ear in mind that professional journals, which are peer reviewed, inherently provide a greater level of quality control compared to other sources, such as blogs, newspapers, or magazines. 5933彩票地址f you find information in a more informal source, such as a news article about a research report, it is always best to verify the information from the original source.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址or example, a 5933彩票地址oogle search of the murder–suicide referenced by the hypothetical 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 unearths research published by the 5933彩票地址ohns 5933彩票地址opkins 5933彩票地址ffice of 5933彩票地址ritical 5933彩票地址vent 5933彩票地址reparedness and 5933彩票地址esponse (). 5933彩票地址he report confirms that most hospital-based active shooter deaths transpire outside of the physical facility, suggesting that metal detectors would be of limited use in preventing this type of violence. 5933彩票地址his research can be used to justify an objection to reallocating funding earmarked for personnel to metal detectors.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he 5933彩票地址opkins research also confirms that most hospital-based active shooter incidents target a specific victim, with interpersonal or domestic violence between a staff member and the shooter as one of the most common precipitating dynamics. 5933彩票地址his validates staff’s concerns: 5933彩票地址mployees are vulnerable to coworkers who may be experiencing interpersonal relationship conflict. 5933彩票地址ddressing staff perceptions of their own vulnerability is equally critical to the security professional’s success in creating a safe environment.
5933彩票地址eyond 5933彩票地址nternet searches, traditional academic research is also within your reach. 5933彩票地址ith an increasing number of colleges and universities offering security programs or majors, security and risk management professionals are in demand as adjunct professors or affiliated faculty. 5933彩票地址hese appointments often are associated with access to a significant number of e-journals in a variety of topics and fields, so it is also beneficial to inquire about this access if accepting one of these positions.
5933彩票地址f you are not directly affiliated with a college or university, cultivating relationships with those who might be willing to access this research on your behalf—whether colleagues or interns—is beneficial. 5933彩票地址f you find a particularly relevant research article, you can also generally purchase or rent the article online from the publisher for a relatively nominal fee.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址onsider taking on an intern to assist with research for your program. 5933彩票地址nternships are important avenues of experience for graduate or undergraduate students and often excellent resources in research assistance. 5933彩票地址dditionally, interns do not need to be enrolled in a security program. 5933彩票地址here are many opportunities for research in behavioral psychology and sociology that would link well with studying human reactions during adverse events. 5933彩票地址iring a research intern outside of the security profession can broaden your view of the issue and create a stronger business case that resonates with nonpractitioners.
5933彩票地址uthors of articles in professional journals are required to be transparent about their research endeavors. 5933彩票地址onsequently, most research articles include an abstract that briefly summarizes the research and its findings, an overview of the issue and why it is important, details about the research methodology, details about the findings, a discussion section, and a conclusion. 5933彩票地址nless you have an interest in becoming a researcher yourself, you can skip the detailed methodology sections and usually find the information you seek in the abstract and discussion sections. 5933彩票地址he overview often also provides a wealth of supplemental content regarding an issue.
5933彩票地址inding evidence-based practices does not need to be a solitary endeavor. 5933彩票地址rofessional networks, including 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址nternational, also provide support. 5933彩票地址sking fellow security practitioners for input or trusted research sources is a valuable force-multiplier when developing a reasoned business case for security solutions. 5933彩票地址ecent discussion posts on an 5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址pen 5933彩票地址orum, for example, suggested several evidence-based active shooter training resources geared toward civilian populations (5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址5933彩票地址 5933彩票地址marter 5933彩票地址ivilian 5933彩票地址ctive 5933彩票地址hooter 5933彩票地址esponse 5933彩票地址nstructor 5933彩票地址raining 5933彩票地址rogram and 5933彩票地址ivilian 5933彩票地址esponse to 5933彩票地址ctive 5933彩票地址hooter 5933彩票地址).
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址lthough security plans often adopt an all-hazards approach to addressing incidents, research can assist in identifying context-specific nuances that can help inform resource allocation, training plans, and intervention strategies.
5933彩票地址he active shooter training programs referenced above are civilian-focused and would not necessarily translate as well when training security staff with law enforcement or military backgrounds. 5933彩票地址ikewise, such training would not be appropriate in addressing middle school students’ safety concerns.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址earching for studies specific to middle school security, however, quickly yields advice on practical and effective bystander intervention programs. 5933彩票地址t also provides relevant facts to use in community education and awareness campaigns, such as the prevalence rates for mass shootings, which are frequently subject to distortion given their shock value and media attention.
5933彩票地址esearch can also assist the security professional seeking to engage in more-targeted violence prevention. 5933彩票地址or example, a basic search of “middle schools” and “school shootings” in the 5933彩票地址.5933彩票地址. 5933彩票地址ational 5933彩票地址enter for 5933彩票地址iotechnology 5933彩票地址nformation’s online research archive, , yields and the window during which copycat acts are most likely to occur. 5933彩票地址his, in turn, can assist in informing the security response. 5933彩票地址or example, security leaders can suggest allocating limited resources toward the retention of additional personnel during the time period at highest probability for similar acts—two weeks, according to the research.
5933彩票地址nother way research can be contextualized is by providing information most relevant to your audience. 5933彩票地址f discussing active assailant preparedness with the chief financial officer for a public school system following a string of shootings, for example, quantifying the additional personnel costs during the contagion risk period is both concrete and justified by the research.
5933彩票地址 single research article can lead to useful data. 5933彩票地址he process of chasing down supplemental information, however, can result in data paralysis. 5933彩票地址his phenomenon occurs when the data becomes the focus rather than a means to an end, obscuring the original problem and hindering engagement in needed action.
5933彩票地址eturning to the hypothetical hospital security example, reviewing bystander intervention literature with research relating to four 5933彩票地址 methods (direct, distract, delegate, and delay) uncovers a relevant violence intervention strategy that translates well to a hospital environment. 5933彩票地址onversely, the same search results brought up a successful gun prevention program targeting urban youth and physical self-defense programs for survivors of sexual assault—clearly not pertinent to the goal of supporting hospital staff.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址s in other aspects of security decision making, the ability to quickly set aside irrelevant information is as important as competently utilizing applicable data.
5933彩票地址voiding 5933彩票地址unnel 5933彩票地址ision
5933彩票地址n additional benefit of incorporating research in decision making is that it helps avoid confirmation bias—the all-too-human tendency to “see what we believe” or, more accurately, to only heed information that aligns with what we already think.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址ur minds use “templates” to prevent us from becoming overloaded by the incredible amount of information and stimuli we are subject to on a daily basis. 5933彩票地址f we experience something new that is similar to something we learned in the past, we quickly file the new experience in the existing template and move on with our day. 5933彩票地址ur typical “top-down” cognitive processing can be useful, such as when we use context clues or patterns to decipher difficult handwriting or fill in missing letters.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址his highly efficient way of processing the world also has a potential downside—when we file new experiences with previous ones, we assume that the new experiences will share the characteristics and behaviors of the prior ones. 5933彩票地址esearch has repeatedly shown that individuals engaged in familiar tasks, particularly when multitasking, fail to perceive hazards in their midst, including oncoming traffic or potential assailants. 5933彩票地址nd in the case of people, we tend to make similar associations: 5933彩票地址f a stranger reminds us of our kindly grandmother, we will tend to be favorably disposed to like them. 5933彩票地址f the stranger reminds us of a litigious neighbor, we are more likely to take offense. 5933彩票地址hat we have previously learned or thought—even if it is inaccurate, incomplete, or irrelevant—influences future thinking.
5933彩票地址he impact of this process on security is often seen after mass shooting events, when the public demands a response that addresses a perceived association between extreme acts of violence and mental illness. 5933彩票地址owever, research shows that a minority of lone actors () and significantly fewer group actors () suffer from a mental illness. 5933彩票地址eft unchallenged, the bias that links mental illness with mass violence could result in threat assessments that overlook nuanced—and more relevant—risk factors, such as situational stressors, social isolation, and an absence of constraints.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址o not generalize research beyond its limits. 5933彩票地址isk factors for violence in hospital settings, for example, vary by country. 5933彩票地址 quick 5933彩票地址oogle search of workplace violence rates against hospital staff in 5933彩票地址urope yields a 5933彩票地址ational 5933彩票地址nstitutes of 5933彩票地址ealth article about assault prevalence rates across several nations. 5933彩票地址nowing that the annual prevalence rate for assault among hospital workers in 5933彩票地址ermany is 56 percent, compared to 11.5 percent in 5933彩票地址taly, suggests that the probability for assault on 5933彩票地址erman hospital workers warrants prioritization of violence prevention efforts to support these staff. 5933彩票地址n 5933彩票地址taly, however, other risks could outweigh workplace violence. 5933彩票地址f course, location is only one context that merits consideration when determining the relevance of research data or findings.
5933彩票地址lso consider whether the research concerns relevant or similar facilities. 5933彩票地址or example, regarding settings that are open to the public such as an entertainment venues, transportation hubs, retail stores, or other public spaces, there is growing research on the ways in which social media has created disembodied bystanders—people who will record violent incidents rather than intervene or call for help—and effective strategies for encouraging a more active, security-conscious response. 5933彩票地址his may not be applicable in an area with restricted access, such as an access-controlled office building or factory.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址n general, the more closely the population studied matches the population you are seeking to protect, the more useful the research will be.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址erhaps the most significant benefit to combining research with professional experience and judgment is that it expands options for effectiveness. 5933彩票地址esearch confirms what works, or it presents better solutions.
5933彩票地址5933彩票地址he security professional seeking to engage hospital staff in strengthening workplace violence prevention efforts, for example, can demonstrate successful efforts with existing research and internal metrics. 5933彩票地址 simple and effective research approach is the pre- and post-test design (see the sidebar, “5933彩票地址ractice into 5933彩票地址esearch,” for more information).
5933彩票地址n the hypothetical hospital, the security leader can survey staff on what factors they believe pose the greatest risk of workplace violence—such as patients, domestic violence, or outside violence—as well as their knowledge of effective interventions. 5933彩票地址his provides a baseline for gauging staff members’ understanding of the two elements of violence risk assessment: forecasting probable acts of violence at the hospital and identifying appropriate practical interventions for that setting. 5933彩票地址hen, provide factual data regarding violence risk (such as prevalence rates for violence subtypes and historic reports of violence in various departments) and evidence-based training in violence prevention and risk mitigation (such as early identification and notification of peer substance use, domestic violence reporting, and resiliency building). 5933彩票地址he original survey is re-administered after training to identify the improvements made in the staff’s levels of knowledge, preparedness, and anxiety about their safety.
5933彩票地址y applying research—particularly in areas that are extensively and continuously studied, such as risk assessment—security’s efforts remain informed, contemporary, and dynamic.
5933彩票地址his article was authored by 5933彩票地址iana 5933彩票地址. 5933彩票地址oncannon and 5933彩票地址ichael 5933彩票地址enter and originally published at?.